Title: Transmission Lines in Digital and Analog Electronic Systems—Signal Integrity and Crosstalk
Author: Clayton R. Paul
Publisher: John Wiley, 2010
ISBN: 9780470592304
Today, clock and data speeds have moved into the gigahertz range. As the demand for faster data processing continues to escalate, these speeds will no doubt continue to increase. In addition, analog communication frequencies have also moved steadily into the gigahertz range. Although the physical dimensions of the signal’s interconnection and the PCBs supporting them have not changed significantly over these intervening years, the spectral content of the signals they carry has increased. Because of this, the electrical dimensions (in wavelengths) of the interconnections have a significant effect on the signals they are carrying; thus, getting the systems to work properly has become a major design problem. As many of us know very well, this scenario has generated a new design problem, referred to as Signal Integrity (SI). Good signal integrity means that the interconnect conductors should not adversely affect the operation of the modules that the conductors interconnect and most interconnect conductors must now be treated as distributedcircuit transmission lines.
This very new book of Professor Clayton R. Paul is intended as a textbook for a senior/firstyear graduatelevel course on transmission lines in electrical engineering (EE) and computer engineering (CpE) curricula. It is, in my opinion, also essential for industry professionals as a compact review of transmissionline fundamentals that is very well oriented and focused on the SI world.
The book has six chapters, divided in two main parts, plus one appendix for a total of 298 pages. A CD is included with the book and contains:
 Several computer programs described and used in the book for computing the perunitlength parameter matrices
 A computer program for the automatic generation of sub circuit models for threeconductor lines
 Two MATLAB programs for computing the Fourier components of a digital waveform
 Two versions of PSPICE
Part I contains two chapters covering twoconductor transmission lines and designing for signal integrity. Chapter 1 gives the fundamental concepts of waves, wavelength, time delay, and electrical dimensions. In addition, the bandwidth of digital signals and its relation to pulse rise and fall times is discussed. A preliminary overview of the electromagnetic phenomena associated with signal integrity and crosstalk is also given.
Chapter 2 covers the timedomain analysis of those transmission lines. The transmissionline equations are derived and solved, and the important concept of characteristic impedance is covered. The important perunitlength parameters of inductance and capacitance that distinguish one line from another are obtained for typical lines. The terminal voltages and currents of lines with various source waveforms and resistive terminations are computed by hand via wave tracing. This gives considerable insight into the general behavior of transmission lines in terms of forward and backwardtraveling waves and their reflections. The SPICE computer program and its personal computer version, PSPICE, contain an exact model for a twoconductor lossless line and are discussed as a computational aid in solving for transmissionline terminal voltages and currents. SPICE is an important computational tool since it provides a determination of the terminal voltages and currents for practical linear and nonlinear terminations such as CMOS and bipolar devices, for which hand analysis is very formidable. Matching schemes for achieving signal integrity are covered, as are the effects of line discontinuities.
Chapter 3 covers the corresponding analysis in the frequency domain. The important analog concepts of input impedance to the line, VSWR and the Smith chart (which provides considerable insight), are also discussed. The effect of line losses, including skin effect in the line conductors and dielectric losses in the surrounding dielectric, are addressed in this chapter. They are becoming increasingly critical and their detrimental effects are discussed.
Part II repeats these topics for threeconductor lines in terms of the crosstalk between transmission lines. In Chapter 4, the transmissionline equations for three conductor lossless lines are derived, and the important perunitlength matrices of the inductance and capacitance of the lines are reviewed. Numerical methods for computing the perunitlength parameter matrices of inductance and capacitance are studied, and computer programs are given that compute these numerically for ribbon cables and various structures commonly found on PCBs. Chapter 5 covers the solution of threeconductor lossless lines via mode decoupling. A SPICE sub circuit model is determined via this decoupling and implemented in the computer program SPICEMTL.EXE offered in the CD. This program performs the tedious diagonalization of the perunitlength parameter matrices and gives as output a SPICE sub circuit for modeling lossless coupled lines. As in the case of twoconductor lines, this allows the study of line responses not only for resistive loads but, more importantly for SI purposes, nonlinear and/or reactive loads such as CMOS and bipolar devices that are common line terminations in today’s digital systems. How to incorporate the frequencydependent losses of the line conductors and the surrounding dielectric into a solution for the crosstalk voltages is discussed in Chapter 6. The frequencydomain solution of the MTL equations is again given in terms of similarity transformations in the frequency domain. The timedomain solution for the crosstalk voltages is obtained in terms of the frequencydomain transfer function, which is obtained by superimposing the responses to the Fourier components of Vs(t).
The appendix gives a brief tutorial of SPICE (PSPICE), which is used extensively throughout the book.
In conclusion, I wish to quote the author, Professor Paul: “It does little good to write sophisticated software if the hardware is unable to process the instructions.” This technological problem will increase as the speeds and frequencies of the digital and analog systems continue to increase, seemingly without limit. This book is a significant contribution to correct that basic deficiency. EMC
WANTED: EMC Books to Review!
Dear IEEE EMC Society Members,
The “Book Review” columns that are published in the EMC Newsletter are a great treasure for all of us. They give us the possibility to be informed of the existence and contents of published books that are of interest in the wide range of topics covered by our common technical and scientific interest: Electromagnetic Compatibility.
The large number of books published on EMC related topics per year makes it impossible for a mortal Associate Editor to be acquainted with all of them. Because of this, I wish to ask you for your help.
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 Have read a technical book that you consider worthy to be shared with members of our community
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Please indicate the author(s), the book title, the publisher, the ISBN and a brief description and/or your comments on why you feel the book should be considered for review in the EMC Newsletter.
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Thank you in advance for your help and time!
Antonio Orlandi
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