IEEE EMC Society
1. A practitioners approach to EMC testing with reverberation chambers
This talk discusses the efficiency of reverberation chambers to perform emissions and immunity tests. The statistically isotropic, randomly polarized, and uniform electromagnetic environment present inside a well stirred reverberation chamber enables a robust, all aspect angle test. The controllable uncertainty of a reverberation chamber test method provides the test engineer options to design a test depending on whether the test is a simple product qualification test or a mission critical system test.
2. Computational verification of reverberation chambers – do's and don'ts
More often we see simulation of reverberation chambers using different numerical techniques like moment methods and finite difference time domain. This talk focusses on what are the do’s and don’ts when it comes to simulating a reverberation chamber and estimating the performance of the reverberation chamber from simulated data. Given enough computational power, any size of a RC can be simulated at any frequency but with a limited computational resource how we achieve a RC like simulation, will be discussed.
3. Comparison of radiative test facilities
This talk covers the physical characteristics, the test electromagnetic environment, and the advantages and disadvantages of the following radiative test facilities: Open Area Test Site (OATS), Partially and Fully Absorber Lined Chambers, Reverberation Chambers, Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) Cells, Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) Cells.
| Vincente Rodriguez
1. Introduction to antenna parameters and Antennas for EMC
This presentation starts with a description of different antenna parameters using movies and graphics to visualize the different features of a radiating antenna. The presentation follows with an overview of the different types of antennas used in EMC to perform EMC measurements
2. Automotive EMC: Components and full vehicle
This presentation is a short survey of the main emissions and immunity for automotive components and full vehicle. The test site requirements for CISPR 12, CISPR 25, ISO 11451 and ISO 11452 are discussed and presented.
3. Anechoic Chambers and Absorber
This is a presentation on the basics of anechoic chamber design and simulation. Samples of designs for CISPR 16, CISPR 25, MIL-STD 461 and RTCA DO 160 are given. An introduction on absorber technology is also presented.
|Joseph C. (Jay) Diepenbrock
1. Signal Integrity Characterization, parameters and techniques
This presentation will focus on the key electrical parameters that are important to understand and measure for ensuring optimum performance in today’s high speed serial communications interfaces. These include fundamental quantities such as inductance, capacitance, and propagation delay as well as “derived” quantities of impedance, insertion and return loss, skew, crosstalk, etc. Software tools for extracting these parameters will also be discussed.
2. High Speed Serial Link Design
This presentation discusses some of the key electrical properties that affect the performance of high speed serial channels and what affects them. It covers insertion and return loss, loss mechanisms, and the influences of various packaging elements including printed circuit board materials, connectors, cables, and vias. The benefits of equalization in lossy channels will be discussed. Test equipment and techniques for characterizing serial channels will be covered as well as software tools for simulating channel performance.
3. High performance data cables
This presentation deals with the design, manufacturing, and testing of high performance data cables. A number of examples will be described illustrating different types of cables for typical applications. Characteristics of various types of materials, construction considerations, various connectors, and termination techniques will be covered, as well as testing considerations.
4. Industry standards overview
This presentation gives an overview of the “PHY” layer of some of the many data communications standards in use today. These standards include Ethernet, InfiniBand, PCI-Express, Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), Serial ATA (S-ATA), HDMI, DisplayPort, Thunderbolt, and others. Physical attributes including lane widths, data rates, connectors used, maximum length, data coding, and some system considerations will be compared and contrasted.
1. Introduction to Reverberation Chamber Concepts and its Application for Probe Calibration and Antenna Efficiency Measurements
Abstract: This presentation gives a brief introduction of current methods used to calibrate electric field probes as defined by IEEE Standard 1309 as well as a brief discussion of some inherent problems with the current test methods. The use of a reverberation chamber to calibrate electric field probes is described as an alternative method along with some of the tradeoffs between methods. The use of modal, spatial, and frequency averaging to improve field uniformity levels to that required for accurate antenna efficiency characterizations are also outlined.
2. The Impact of Cables and Connectors on Radio Frequency and Microwave Measurement Uncertainties
Abstract: Microwave test and measurement equipment is used for many applications, including component measurements, electromagnetic compatibility testing, metrology and wireless environment assessments. Much of this equipment requires special care and consideration in order to eliminate damage and maintain a high level of accuracy. When developing these high frequency measurement systems and evaluating system performance, it is common to consider the warranted equipment specifications. Very often, however, the error contribution of cables and connectors to the system uncertainty is overlooked. Impedance mismatch is typically the largest source of measurement error and is largely influenced by the cables and connectors used within the system. Something as insignificant as a $30 connector can adversely affect the performance of a system costing several hundred thousand dollars. This presentation provides an overview of commonly used cables and connectors and discusses some of the errors associated with them. The impact of these errors on overall measurement system uncertainties is discussed. The presentation finishes with some practical examples and real world applications to help guide participants in the selection and use of cables and connectors and more accurately assess system performance.
3. Utilizing Reverberation Chambers as a Versatile Test Environment for Assessing the Performance of Components and Systems
Abstract: Electromagnetic reverberation chambers have been used for many years by the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) community to measure the susceptibility and emissions for various electronic components and systems. This presentation describes how statistical processes were used to reduce the uncertainty of these chambers to a level necessary for precision metrology applications. These processes were applied to the calibration of electromagnetic field probes and the assessment of antenna efficiencies. A brief comparison of traditional calibration methods employing transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells and anechoic chambers to the new statistical reverberant environment will be shown.
The presentation also goes on to explain how these techniques were later applied to a wide variety of aircraft measurements. A technique which utilizes two side by side reverberation chambers sharing a common wall with an arbitrary shaped aperture, useful for the assessment of component shielding, will be discussed. Utilizing this same approach, it is possible to assess the shielding of large structures such as commercial aircraft. These aircraft shielding measurements are necessary for High Intensity Radiated Field Susceptibility (HIRF) certifications.
With the proliferation of wireless devices it is important to understand how they behave in complex electromagnetic environments and how they interact with other devices and systems in which they are collocated . Aircraft environments have been shown to behave similarly to reverberation chambers and therefore these techniques can be employed to study propagation environments and system interactions. This presentation will give examples of how these techniques were employed to measure bulk absorption used to simulate passenger loading of aircraft, field mapping which is useful for the evaluation of signal coverage and channel interference as well as signal propagation characteristics.
Integrated Signal and Power Integrity for High-Speed Channel Design
The high frequency of off-chip signal channels is creating the necessity for increasingly integrated signal and power analysis in the design of the high-speed channels in packages and printed circuit boards. This trend will continue because of the growth of big data and analytics and the demand that puts on computer architectures. The electrical engineer needs the skills to design the hardware in a cost-effective way. This presentation will cover the modeling of the signal distribution at the chip, package and PCB level and the use of transmit and receive models and challenges in modeling, analyzing and quantifying the impact of the power distribution on the eye parameters and jitter. The outputs of the analysis include physical design parameters such as decoupling capacitor requirements, signal shielding requirements and trace placement as well as electrical parameters such as voltage tolerance and jitter output that need to be determined for the full channel design.
Electrical Design for High-End Computer Systems
The electrical design of computer systems includes signal integrity, power integrity, electromagnetic emissions and susceptibility and ESD. Practicing engineers in system design and development typically are skilled more deeply in one of these areas than the others. However, these are not independent disciplines and today's dense packaging and high-speed signals require more cross-discipline skills that we call co-design and co-analysis. This presentation comes from the perspective of an engineer most deeply skilled in the power integrity discipline and explores the building of cross-discipline skills focusing on the application of electromagnetic extraction and circuit simulation tools to electrical modeling that enables co-design for robust system development.
Considerations for Advancing Technology in Computer System Packaging
In this era of smart computing, big data and deep analytics define the architecture of computers and the software that runs on these systems. The hardware technology is evolving to support the needs of the systems under the constraints of decreasing cost per performance, increasing bandwidth per unit area and constant power per unit volume from one generation of systems to the next. To meet these constraints, the trade-offs of proposed solutions need to be evaluated. As a pair of examples, 3D integration provides the possibility of higher compute density and data bandwidth at the challenge of maintaining power density and cost constraints, and integrated voltage regulation provides the possibility of maintaining power density with the challenge of maintaining compute density and cost constraints. This presentation will discuss the application of new technology that address design challenges and the tradeoffs that are encountered.
|Professor Jim Drewniak
Practical power distribution network analysis and design with specifications in the time (voltage ripple) and frequency (target impedance) domains
A wealth of practical experience, together with available post-layout analysis tools contributes to the success of power integrity practices in present high-speed product applications. However, a methodical, systematic approach that is guided by well described physics and models, equivalent circuit where applicable, and which correspond to those physics, is not readily available for practice. This presentation details physics and a methodology for practical PDN design with consistency between the time-domain specifications for voltage ripple, and a target-impedance design framework.
Managing intentional currents and anticipating un-intentional currents for EMI design
The signals and logic levels in analog and digital electronics are based on voltages, and a typical university education in circuits, electronics, and digital design is very on voltage-centric. However, the parasitics that limit the performance of a design in practical applications are most easily understood, characterized, and an equivalent circuit model and topology developed from an understanding of the specific signal current path. Similarly for un-intentional current paths that comprise the EMI coupling path and lead to radiation provide a systematic approach for understanding, diagnosing, and mitigating EMI problems. This presentation will detail a methodical approach for identifying current paths – intentional and un-intentional – and detail a means of developing equivalent circuit models for parasitics in signal paths, as well as EMI coupling path models for un-intended current paths, together with example case studies.
Using absorbing materials for EMI and RFI mitigation – cables, enclosures, heatsinks, and modeling
Absorbing materials are being used for EMI mitigation at frequencies above several hundred megahertz. The complex permittivity and permeability of these materials is often provided by the vendor, and can be readily used in full-wave numerical modeling tools However, the application of these materials for EMI mitigation is typically a trail-and-error process. The physics and application of absorbing materials with example case studies will be presented.
EMI coupling paths and radiation physics at PCB-PCB and PCB-cable interfaces and mitigation approaches
It can be helpful in practice for both EMI and signal integrity to categorize the signal layout in terms of transverse electromagnetic (TEM), or transmission-line geometries, e.g., microstrip and stripline, and not-TEM. At interfaces where “not-TEM” electromagnetic physics are dominant, unwanted signal scattering and coupling to other signal modes or EMI coupling paths can occur. This presentation focuses on the EMI coupling physics at connector interfaces, both between two PCBs, as well as a PCB to electrical cable.
High speed interconnect modeling, measurement, and correlation
High speed links are running at micro-wave frequencies and high quality models are essential to the IO design. In this presentation, the author will discuss modeling challenges and provide simulation guidelines in building accurate electrical models of link components such as PCB, package, connector, etc. In-depth analysis of the PCB technology will be provided to reveal why traditional PCB modeling methodology is running out of steam at multi-GHz frequencies. The presentation will also address another critical aspect of high speed interconnect design: the simulation and measurement correlation. Practical examples using TDR/VNA to perform simulation/measurement correlation will be given in the presentation.
Crosstalk management in high speed interconnect
Crosstalk is a key limiter in high speed interconnect design. It will be even more impactful as the data rate gets higher and designs becomes more compact. In this presentation, the author will address various crosstalk coupling mechanisms in high speed interconnect design including single ended signal and differential signals. Various crosstalk mitigation techniques will be discussed including shielding, separation, inductive/capacitive coupling adjustment, crosstalk cancellation, pin-out arrangement, etc. Many innovative crosstalk mitigation examples will be given in the presentation.
DC-DC voltage converter switching noise – coupling mechanisms and mitigation approaches.
In this presentation, various DC-DC voltage converter switching noise coupling mechanisms will be discussed. Practical design examples with noise coupling issues will be demonstrated and noise mitigation approaches will be discussed as well. In addition, near field scanning results will be provided to reveal the hot spots with switching noise. Simulation methodologies, as well as design guidelines on how to avoid switching noise will also be addressed in details in the presentation.
Over the air test for wireless terminals
This presentation gives an introduction to the fundamentals and advances of the over the air test for wireless terminals, such as cellular phone, GPS /Beidou receivers, WiFi and Bluetooth terminals etc. Topics that will be addressed include total radiated power and total isotropic sensitivity fundamentals, CTIA standard test and measurement uncertainties. Advances in the over the air test will also be discussed including new understanding of measurement uncertainty sources and compact zone test and systems.
MIMO test methods for wireless terminals
This presentation gives an introduction to the fundamentals and advances of the MIMO throughput test methods for wireless terminals, such as LTE and WiFi. Different methods, including reverberation chamber method, multi-probe method and two stage methods are introduced. The theoretical and practical advantages and limitations of the MIMO test methods will be discussed. The advances of the MIMO test methods for wireless terminals will also be addressed including the radiated two stage method
Theory for radio desensitization
This presentation gives complete theory of radio desensitization. It covers from very fundamental radio noise concept to the coupling mechanism of radio desensitization.
Radiated Emissions/Immunity of the NASA/Orion Mars/Moon Capsule
For the future NASA Manned Space Exploration of the Moon and Mars, a blunt body capsule, composed of a crew exploration module and a service module, with a parachute decent for reentry back to Earth, will replace the retired Space Shuttle. A Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being developed for preliminary parachute drop tests at the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) to provide measurements of position, velocity, acceleration, attitude, temperature, pressure, humidity, and parachute loads. The avionics system on CPAS also provides firing events to deploy and release staged/reefed parachutes using mortars and pressure cartridge assemblies. Intentional and unintentional radiation emitted and received by antennas and electronic components on/in the capsule are being tested for radiated emissions/immunity.
In this presentation, pictures of the test setups, capsule build-up and development, parachute drop tests, and test results for the components and assembled system are shown.
Thermal Images of EM Fields using IR Thermograms and Microwave Holography.
Thermal images of Electromagnetic (EM) fields, using Infrared (IR) Thermograms and Microwave Holograms, are used to measure the magnitude and phase of EM fields radiated from antennas, scattered from objects, or coupled through apertures into objects. This IR imaging technique, based on thermal principles, can be used to measure antenna patterns, scattering cross-sections, aperture coupled waveguide/cavity modes, and to independently validate and verify (V&V) numerical Computational Electromagnetic (CEM) codes. This measurement technique is minimally perturbing and can be used to measure near fields without mutual probe coupling to the antenna-under-test (AUT).
Using measured thermograms at two separated near-field planes in front of the AUT, a plane-to-plane iterative holographic technique is used to determine the relative phase of the radiation and, with the measured aperture field intensity, can be used to map the far-field antenna pattern.
The images are presented as 2D contour plots or as 3D relief maps of the relative or absolute intensities of the EM fields being measured.
– Measurements (EMC Test Standards) and Analysis/Synthesis (Design)
Radiated Emissions (RE) from an electronic system can cause Electromagnetic Susceptibility (RS) in other nearby electronic devices. All components of the electronic system radiate, and all parts of the electronic device receive, forming multiple coupled intentional/unintentional transmitter/receiver pairs. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) between the system and the device can cause degradation, damage, destruction, etc. of the components of the device. EMI MIL-STD emissions/immunity testing of the radiated emissions from and radiated susceptibility of an electronic circuit are reviewed. All components of the system/device are modeled and simulated as radiating/receiving antennas.
The physics (concepts) and math (models) of basic antennas are reviewed. The concept of radiation is discussed, with propagation, scattering, and coupling as special cases. The two radiation integrals (one describing the electric characteristics of the antenna, and the other describing the magnetic characteristics of the antenna) are derived “Heuristically” from the auxiliary potential equations (Poisson/Laplace), as THE unique particular solutions to the (coupled) Maxell and (uncoupled) Helmholtz field/wave equations (with the Conservation of Charge/Current) for all basic antennas types radiating in simple media (with linear/homogeneous/isotropic/non-dispersive Constitutive Relations).
For more information, contact the program chairman:
Bruce Archambeault, Ph.D.
IBM Distinguished Engineer, IEEE Fellow
3039 Cornwallis Rd
B203, Rm A117
RTP, NC 27709
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