Book Review

Electromagnetic Compatibility of Integrated Circuits: Techniques for Low Emissions and Susceptibility
Editors: Sonia Ben Dhia, Mohammed Randami, and Etienne Sicard



Publisher: Springer, 2006
Most often we deal with EMC issues at the system, subsystem, and box level. Sometimes EMC engineers address EMC issues at the board level. This book brings a description and addresses EMC issues down to the chip level. Therefore, this book addresses mostly EMC at the integrated circuit level, as its title indicates.
I found the book very informative. For those interested in EMC issues at the integrated circuit level, this book will be a good start. I think this book is also of interest and a good reference to chip designers and board designers, of which I consider myself one.
One important factor that needs to come across is that the reader of this book must already have some good knowledge of EMC, but that seems to be understandable in my opinion because I would expect most of the readers of this book to be engineering professionals who have either experienced or learned about EMC in their daily experiences.
The book is composed of seven Chapters and two appendices totaling about 450 pages. It comes with a CD containing some of the tools used in the book. I counted 37 contributors to this book, which indicates it averages about 12 pages per contributor. There is an indication of which contributors participated in which Chapters. Contributors are mostly from Europe, but there are contributors from the US, Japan, and Morocco also.
The first Chapter of the book, titled Basic Concepts in EMC for ICs provides an introduction to the EMC issues that can play a role in integrated circuits. It covers briefly some of the different types of coupling mechanisms commonly seen in EMC and provides also an introduction of EMC measurements that are suitable mainly for integrated circuits. Chapter 2, titled Historical Review and State of the Art, provides a very detailed history of the work done from the early 1970’s on the subject of EMC for integrated circuits. This is followed by some of the state of the art issues in IC design that have EMC implications. There is a good listing of references at the end of the Chapter. Chapter 3 is titled Fundamentals and Theory and it is somewhat a combination of an introduction to antenna theory and an introduction to transmission line theory. I think Chapter 3 could have benefited by the addition of some of the most salient EMC concepts, like parasitic effects of components, differential and common mode currents, crosstalk, and field coupling.
The bulk of the book is concentrated on its two longest Chapters (Chapters 4 and 5), which address measurements and modeling of EMC in integrated circuits, respectively. Chapter 4 is titled Measurement Methods for emissions and susceptibility of integrated circuits. The Chapter addresses the measurements techniques that can be used for characterizing the emissions from parasitic effects and the immunity levels of integrated circuits. The measurements methodologies are based on the international standard IEC 61967 for emissions and the IEC 62132 standard for susceptibility. In the area of emissions, the Chapter covers in very good detail the usage of TEM/GTEM test chambers, the near field scan, the Workbench Faraday Cage for radiated emissions, and the 1/150 ohm conducted methods for conducted emissions; all of which are standard methodologies outlined in IEC 61967 and are tailored in this Chapter for IC EMC emissions measurements. These are all near field techniques for measuring emissions from analog and digital integrated circuits. The drawback of these techniques is the time required to complete each scan at each given frequency. There is an emphasis on the need to design better probes for measuring strong regions of magnetic fields above the surface of IC packages. In the area of susceptibility or immunity testing, the Chapter covers, in very good detail, the methods of Bulk Current Injection and Direct Power Injection. The authors seem to prefer direct power injection for ICs (though they are more time consuming and costly). The Chapter ends with a good description of proposed impulse immunity methods for ICs (to be part of IEC 62215). There is also a discussion in the Chapter of the usage of anechoic chambers for far field emissions measurements. The Chapter describes the basic ideas beyond far field emissions; possible set up for emission/immunity measurements in anechoic chambers and reverberation chambers. The Chapter ends with a discussion of on-chip measurements approaches for noise characterization of integrated circuits.
Chapter 5 is all about modeling and it is obviously titled EMC Modeling: An Overview of Emission and Immunity Phenomena Modeling in ICs. This is the longest Chapter in the book. The Chapter deals with modeling the parasitic effects as it relates to EMC in integrated circuits. The Chapter starts with modeling of ESD (human body model, machine model, charge device model, and transmission line pulse model). These models were developed to produce most of the different failure signatures of integrated circuits, which are caused by ESD stress. Then Chapter 5 moves on to model the parasitic and distributive electrical model parameters of PCB transmission lines and packaging for ICs. Once this is done, the Chapter continues with modeling emission and then susceptibility of integrated circuits.
In modeling the emissions from integrated circuits, the Chapter makes use of a model developed by the French Standardization Group, known as the IC EMC model (or ICEM). The Chapter goes on to describe the details of this model, how it works, how it can be used, and some of the results of the models when compared to measurements. ICEM can address both radiated and conducted emissions. Some ICEM applications were also described. Besides the ICEM model, the Chapter also addresses in good detail the usage of IBIS (a standardized format for modeling analog of digital i/o buffers) for modeling signal integrity. Because IBIS hides proprietary device and internal connectivity detail, most semiconductors and EDA tool vendors support it. Another model discussed in the Chapter is the IMIC model (I/O interface model for integrated circuit per the standard EIAJ ED-5302). Simulations of signal integrity, power integrity and conducted emissions are possible using IMIC. Another emissions model developed in Japan is discussed in this Chapter, the Linear Equivalent Circuit and Current Source (LECCS). LECCS is a model based on macro-model for digital IS/LSIs and it was originally developed to evaluate the RF noise current on a power pin of a core logic circuit.
In modeling immunity, the authors used modified versions of the ICEM and LECCS models. A new and important issue in immunity models is the establishment of fail criteria, and Chapter 5 addresses several cases of such. Chapter 5 ends with a brief discussion of crosstalk effects (propagation delays and increased power consumption). This is probably more of an issue when victim lines and aggressor lines switch simultaneously which can cause changes in the propagation delays of the victim and the interconnecting lines must also be long with respect to frequency.
Chapter 6 is titled Case Studies: EMC Test-chips, Low Emission Microcontrollers. No new material is presented in this Chapter from the point of view of EMC in integrated electronics. The Chapter presents a collection of case studies dealing with the electromagnetic compatibility of integrated circuits, and the emphasis is on microcontrollers. Emission and susceptibility of microcontrollers from several IC manufacturers are measured using standard methods (Chapter 4) and predicted results are obtained from models using a macro-modeling approach (Chapter 5). Specific test chips dedicated to the characterization of internal switching noise and to the validation of low emission design techniques are also described.
The last Chapter of the book, Chapter 7, is titled Guidelines: Rules to Improve EMC. It describes a series of design methodologies to significantly reduce the parasitic emissions and susceptibility of CMOS integrated circuits. Both layout and packaging guidelines are addressed. EMC

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