Chapter Chatter
The shadow box includes EMI troubleshooting aids, often used and taught formulas (capacitor / inductor values, impedance of an inductor, impedance of a capacitor and self-resonant frequency), a Christmas card with Chris waiving to Santa, who is exiting the EMC lab with compliant toys, Diet Coke, Almond Roca and Chris’ ever present pocket memo book.
There is a very nice Chris Kendall memorial article in this issue written by Steve Jensen. As I read what Steve, and many others, has written about Chris, I feel blessed and humbled to have been associated with him. Chris graciously allowed me to take on the endeavor of editing the Chapter Chatter column. He was also the source of several humorous EMC stories that have been shared here. Chris will be greatly missed by his employees, colleagues and family. I’m sure some will even miss his corny jokes. “We hail from the little town of Mariposa, which is famous for the fact that both city limit signs are on the same post,” was how he started seemly every seminar he taught. Chris had an uncanny ability to teach EMC fundamentals with a fun and interesting twist. Helping engineers to learn their self-resonant frequency was one of Chris’ favorite ways to make them aware of standing waves from slots, seams, etc. The staff of CKC Laboratories in Fremont, California created the shadow box (see picture) that perfectly captures the professional and personal memories that many people have of Chris.



André Berthon of the French Chapter reports that a meeting was held on November 11th at the Institut Supérieur d’Electronique de Paris. The meeting was devoted to a presentation by EMCS Distinguished Lecturer, Professor Michel Ianoz, on “EMC Problems Related to Powerline Communications,” addressing all problems related with PLC’s including test methods and norms. The lecture was followed by a lively discussion from a very interested audience.

Attendees at the “Information Measuring Equipment for Electromagnetic Monitoring of Technological Objects” seminar included (from left) Ass. Prof. O. Zaporogets, Prof. G. Churyumov (Kharkov Joint Chapter Chair), Ass. Prof. V. Degtyarev, and Prof. I. Ruzhentsev.

Kharkov (Ukraine)

Gennadiy Churyumov, Kharkov Joint Chapter Chair, reports that 2003 was very active for his Chapter. Several meetings and seminars were held in the first half of 2003. Dr. Idrissi Yahyaoui Khalid presented the paper entitled “EMC in Telecommunication Networks”. Other papers presented included one by Dr. Vladimir Oliynyk entitled, “EMC in Mobil Communication Systems: Theory and Methods”. Also, two seminars took place last spring and summer. Professor Igor Ruzhentsev organized and chaired these seminars. The first was held on April 16 and was entitled, “Information Measuring Equipment for Electromagnetic Monitoring of Technological Objects”. A second regional seminar entitled “Harmonization of International and National Standards for Certification of ISM Equipment” was organized in Kharkov (Ukraine) on June 11. About 60 engineers and scientific workers attended the seminars. In the second half of 2003, the Kharkov EMC Society Joint Chapter provided technical support for two international conferences. First, was the Fourth International Conference on Antenna Theory and Techniques (ICATT’03), held in Sevastopol (Crimea, Ukraine) September 9-12, 2003. More than 200 participants from Ukraine, Russia, Netherlands, Italy, and Canada attended. Second, the International Conference on Noise Radar Technology (NRT’03) was held in Kharkov (Ukraine) October 21-23, 2003. More than 100 participants from Ukraine, Russia, USA, and Sweden attended.

Jong Hwa Kwon, the past IEEE EMC Korea Chapter Secretary, reports that they have newly elected Chapter officers. The new Chapter officers took office for two years beginning in January 2004. The new Chairman is Professor Jeong Ki Pack of the Department of Radio Science and Engineering at Chungnam National University. The new Chapter secretary is Mr. Jong Hwa Kwon with the Division of Radio Technology and Electronics at the Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI).

At the Milwaukee EMC Chapter event in March, Tom Moyer of Amplifier Research (right) showed Steve Klinger of Plexus Technology Group how “Breakthrough” technology can create a product so lightweight that you can lift it with just one finger.
A very attentive audience listens to Don Heirman’s EMC standards presentation.









Don Heirman receives a “Cow Box” from Jim Blaha, Milwaukee Section EMC Chapter Chair, in appreciation of the excellent standards presentation.

Don Heirman discussed everybody’s favorite topic – EMC Measurement Uncertainty!


Jim Blaha of L.S. Compliance chaired this year’s seminar with Teresa White of L. S. Compliance and Don Heirman (from left).















“Leo’s back in town!” Leo Makowski of HV Technologies (right) visited with Kevin McDermott of Rockwell Automation at the Milwaukee Chapter’s March EMC Seminar.
Jack Black of DLS Electronic Systems (left) and Steve Laya from Elite Electronic Engineering discuss relevant EMC issues at the Milwaukee EMC Chapter seminar.
Frank Krozel from Electronic Instrument Associates (left) and Tom Moyer from Amplifier Research enjoy a few minutes between technical sessions at the Milwaukee EMC Chapter seminar.
Pictured from left are Dr. Hermann Viets, President of the Milwaukee School of Engineering, Jim Blaha, EMC Chapter Chair and IEEE Milwaukee Section Chair, and Dr. Ulrich Rohde, Chairman of Synergy Microwave Corporation at Dr. Rohde’s dinner presentation to IEEE members and students.
Tom Holmes of Agilent Technologies, Dr. Bob Strangeway of the Milwaukee School of Engineering, and Mike Larsen of Agilent Technologies (from left) review the current Agilent product offerings for EMC engineering at the March Milwaukee Chapter event.
Frank Krozel of Electronic Instrument Associates (leaning right) demonstrates new products from EM Test.



Jim Blaha, the Milwaukee Section EMC Chapter Chairperson, reports that this past fall the Milwaukee EMC Chapter, along with the sponsorship of the Milwaukee School of Engineering, was honored to have as a dinner speaker Dr. Ulrich Rohde. Dr. Rohde addressed an audience of over 50 IEEE members and IEEE student members. The topic of Dr. Rohde’s presentation addressed the third generation of Global Technology, which will be focused on the UMTS-Digital System. This system will seek to incorporate multimedia communications and very high quality video images. UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. UMTS will deliver low cost, high capacity mobile communications offering data rates up to 2Mbit/sec with global roaming and other advanced capabilities. Dr. Rohde also emphasized, “Technology cannot become a topic which is decided by politics”. As global students, we need to maintain a good mix between tradition and society demands. Country barriers are disappearing and success lies in education and commitment to excellence. It was especially significant for the attending IEEE student members to hear from Dr. Rohde that in the future, “Global Students” will come from all countries and all will become global professionals. This joint meeting of active EMC Chapter members along with IEEE Student Members provided an excellent forum for student engineers to experience the vision and wisdom of Dr. Rohde, of Rohde & Schwarz fame. This past March, the Milwaukee EMC Chapter sponsored its third in a continuing series of EMC educational seminars. The honored speaker for our March seminar was Mr. Don Heirman. Over 65 attendees and 24 vendors of EMC related products and services spent the day with the “Big Cheese” of EMC standards. Don’s presentation focused on the world of EMC standards and their relationships to each other. Attendees from Rockwell Automation, GE Medical Systems, Plexus Technology and Cooper Power Systems all responded with a near excellent rating of this seminar and our speaker. The seminar survey also provided the following comments: “Great dollar value for the educational content” and “continued study of the handout materials is essential.” One attendee also requested the Milwaukee Chapter to, “continue with the scheduling of quality speakers.” Previous to Mr. Heirman, the Milwaukee Chapter sponsored seminars with Dr. Clayton Paul and Mr. Lee Hill. All 65 attendees that submitted surveys responded that they would attend another educational program like this one in spring of 2005. Ideas are already being developed to continue the commitment of providing the highest level of EMC educational programs at a price that meets today’s budget restrictions.

The Oregon and SW Washington Chapter attendees at the Seattle Colloquium along with Bruce Archambeault, Lee Hill and Seattle Chapter Chair, Pat André.
Bruce Archambeault and Lee Hill ensured that everyone got the “point” during their “cutting edge” presentations.
Oregon and SW Washington Chapter attendees at the seminar sponsored by Amplifier Research and presented by Bill Parker.
Bill Parker of Parker EMC shared several unique testing experiences during his presentation.
Chapter meeting attendees enjoyed dinner before Bill Owsley’s presentation.
Bill Owsley of Underwriters Laboratories during his “Ethernet Design for EMC” presentation.

Oregon and SW Washington
Dave Britton, Vice-Chair, reports that the Oregon and SW Washington Chapter kicked off the new-year with a road trip in January. Fifteen Chapter members left the Portland area in two rented vans at 5:30 am. We headed to Seattle for their Chapter colloquium which featured the “Bruce - Lee” show. We arrived just in time for a quick cup of coffee before the presentations began. As you can see, the presenters left the crowd with some “new pointers.” A great deal of camaraderie was developed amongst the travelers in the six hour round trip. It was a great opportunity for our Chapter to meet members of the Seattle Chapter. In February the Chapter attended a half-day seminar sponsored by Amplifier Research. Bill Parker, of Parker EMC, did an engaging presentation on RF Immunity/Susceptibility Testing. AR graciously provided lunch to all attendees. The Chapter presented AR with a plaque of appreciation at the end of the seminar. In March, the Chapter’s Treasurer, Bill Owsley of Underwriters Labs, gave a presentation on “Ethernet Design for EMC”. The meeting was held at Portland State University. The presentation generated much discussion, as this subject is near and dear to many of us in the field. Attendees enjoyed a burrito dinner before the meeting.
The Chapter’s remaining spring 2004 events are as follows:

• Distinguished Lecturer CW Lam from Apple will present to our Chapter on April 28th.
• William Parker of Parker EMC will return to our Chapter on May 19th.

For details on the above meetings and
to RSVP, check our website at:

Richard Remski explores the mysteries of power integrity with the Rocky Mountain Chapter in January.
The Rocky Mountain Chapter soaks in the information during the January meeting.
Brad Brim lectured on signal integrity simulation at the Rocky Mountain Chapter’s January Meeting.
Larry Ernst shows the Rocky Mountain Chapter a really big printer!
The meeting after the Rocky Mountain Chapter’s February meeting.
The Rocky Mountain Chapter officers thank Larry Ernst for his presentation on EMC in large printers.

Rocky Mountain

The 2004 campaign started very strongly with a double-header event in January. The Chapter was very fortunate to have two of the most senior application engineers from Ansoft Corporation ( present how simulation can head off serious signal integrity issues in high-speed systems and in power distribution design. The first presentation was presented by Brad Brim, their High Frequency Marketing Manager, titled “Signal Integrity Issues for High Speed Serial Channel Design.” In this presentation, Brad showed how the electrical behavior of an entire 3.2 Gigabit per Second serial channel was analyzed using EDA software tools. The PCB traces, multi-layered vias, board-to board connectors and board-to-cable connectors were all analyzed and combined to yield a full channel model. The individual parts of the channel and their interaction were examined to predicatively re-design the channel for maximum bandwidth. In the second presentation, Richard Remski flew all the way from Florida, stopping here on his way home to Texas. Although he was, in his words, a little jet lagged, he still managed to hold the audience with his presentation titled “Analysis of PCB Power/Ground Plane Decoupling with New Solver Technology.” This presentation centered on a new discipline building in the electronics community, that of Power Integrity. Richard showed that the proper understanding and mitigation of power and ground plane behavior has become increasingly important as PCB designs incorporate increasing trace density, increasing layer counts, and tightened operational specifications. Traditional analysis methods have been insufficient to rapidly address true distributed power and ground structure behavior, requiring the application of general rules-of-thumb, such as preventative decoupling strategies. A new two-dimensional finite-element solution technology now permits true analysis of even complex power and ground configurations, allowing direct pre- or post- route analysis of various decoupling options. This paper outlined the solution technology, provided verification comparisons to measurements to validate its accuracy, and proposed a design methodology that may allow more optimized, cost-effective decoupling strategies. The Chapter’s February meeting was a fully local event when one of the Chapter’s own members shared his experiences designing large printers for IBM. In a talk titled (appropriately), “EMC Concerns in Printers,” Larry Ernst certainly changed our preconceptions on what kind of problems he has to deal with. Most of the folks that attended this meeting had an idea of what the printers in Larry’s talk would look like - small devices hooked to a PC, sitting on a desk, in a plastic case, etc. Imagine the surprise then when Larry put his first slide up for all to see. Pictured was something far from a common desktop printer! A typical configuration consists of two cabinets 5 feet high, 11 feet long and 4 feet deep, with typical applications being on-demand books, IRS checks and so on. These types of electromechanical devices present many difficult EMC compliance challenges such as electrostatic discharge sources within the device. Changes to the EN 61000-3-11 (flicker) standards and the impact on designs was discussed, with a short review of radiated emissions reduction techniques. The presentation concluded with a discussion on the relationship of a product organization and EMC. An organizational example was discussed which was the genesis of an inexpensive radiated emissions solution. Finally, there is some RM EMC Chapter business to pass along. In a recent election, the following folks were confirmed as officers of the Chapter: Charles Grasso (Chair), Matt Aschenberg (Vice-Chair), Monrad Monsen (Secretary). You will notice that Monrad is seated in our group picture. He is (shall we say) quite a bit taller than most and he agreed to that small concession for the picture! The officers of the Rocky Mountain Chapter are pleased to announce an increase in the scope of the Chapter. We have been officially approved to change the name of the Chapter to include the IEEE Signal Integrity Society. We are excited with this change and new challenge.

Santa Clara Valley
Darryl Ray reports the EMC 2004 Symposium in Santa Clara is really taking shape. The Symposium now has over 330 technical papers and workshop presentations planned. To date, over 200 exhibit spaces have been sold which is an increase over the EMC 2003 sales rate. The committee has worked very hard to improve the layout of the advance and final programs in order to allow the attendees to “session hop”. The advance program has been sent to the printer and should be available by mid May. The Wednesday evening gala will be held at the Mountain Winery in the hills above the Silicon Valley. We had many favorable comments about the Mountain Winery from the 1996 EMC Symposium. It’s time for a repeat of this really nice event. To register, download the advance program, and to get the latest information about EMC2004, please see Don’t forget to “remind” your boss as advance registration ends July 9. We need your help to spread the word to help us promote the symposium. Promotional brochures, posters and advance programs are available by contacting the IEEE EMC conference planner at the address below. We look forward to seeing you in Santa Clara August 9-13!
For EMC 2004 brochures, posters and advance programs, please contact:
Vita Feuerstein,
CMP, Senior Conference Planner
IEEE Conference Management Services
445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, N.J. U.S.A. 08855-1331
Tel: US and Canada: +1 800 810 4333 or
Tel: +1 732 562 6826
Fax: +1 732 981 1203

Dave Walen of the FAA emphasizes a point during his presentation to the Seattle EMC Chapter in February.
Leo Smale, Cindy Catlin and Bill Hall of Lionheart Northwest (from left) represented one of many companies that exhibited at the Seattle EMC Chapter Colloquium and Exhibition on January 20.
Bruce Archambeault (left) receives a raffle prize donated by Underwriters Laboratories following the technical presentations. Dan Arnold of UL looks on with glee.
It’s not often one witnesses the transformation of EMC presenters by day to EMC busters by night! But, that’s what happened at “The Bruce Lee Show” organized by the Seattle EMC Chapter.
Speakers Bruce Archambeault of IBM (left) and Lee Hill of Silent Solutions pause in front the IEEE Seattle Section banner, which commemorates the Section’s 100-year anniversary.
Jerry Page of Northwest EMC is ready to go with his tabletop display at the Seattle EMC Chapter Colloquium and Exhibition.
Pat André presents speaker Ghery Pettit of Intel (left) with a bottle of red wine as a thank you “speaker’s gift” for his excellent presentation to the Seattle Chapter.
Pat André calls the March Seattle EMC Chapter meeting to order. The meeting was held at Meydenbauer Convention Center in conjunction with Northcon.
The February Seattle EMC Chapter meeting provided the opportunity for the 1999 Seattle Symposium Committee to reunite. Shown from left to right are John Windell, Myles O’Bryne, Janet O’Neil and Dave Walen.
The Seattle EMC Chapter meeting attracts visitors of all ages!
EMC, technical, and social discussions occurred during the excellent lunch break held during the Seattle EMC Chapter Colloquium and Exhibition.
The presentations were interesting and captured everyone’s attention. Nobody in this crowd was sleeping in Seattle!
It was a full house for the January Seattle Chapter event with many attendees registering at the door.
Before and between the presentations at the Seattle Chapter Colloquium and Exhibition, the attendees had refreshments and visited the exhibitor’s tabletop displays.

The Seattle Chapter held a colloquium and exhibition with Lee Hill of Silent Solutions and Bruce Archambeault of IBM on January 20. Over 120 EMC professionals and students attended this one-day event held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Bellevue. While widely known as the “Bruce Lee Show” due to the colorful characters involved, the “professional” title was “EMC Design Concepts and Applications for the Real World.” Mr. Hill covered the topics “Inductance in PC Boards, Connectors, and Cables” (which included demonstrations), and “Illustrations and Demonstrations of Signal Returns, Grounds, and Ground Problems in Product Design.” Dr. Archambeault presented “The Ground Myth” along with “Decoupling of PC Boards for EMC and Functionality in the Real World.” His book PCB Design for Real-World EMI Control was a sell-out at this event. The highlight of the day was the reception with the many participating tabletop exhibitors. Mr. Hill and Dr. Archambeault “dressed” for the occasion much to the delight of the audience. The exhibitors offered several raffle items. All enjoyed the hearty buffet of appetizers, drink tickets for the open bar, and camaraderie found in this festive environment. Many attended advised that they learned things they could use on the job – the very next day! All agreed it was a top-notch technical program and that the speakers kept things lively and educational. Kudos go to Len Carlson for handling registration and to Seattle Chapter Chair Pat André who doubled as Emcee and kept things running smoothly throughout the day. In February, the Chapter was excited to have Dave Walen, the FAA’s Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor – Electromagnetic Interference and Lightning, speak on “Flying with Your Mobile Phone – What’s the Problem?” This presentation, held at CKC Labs in Redmond, attracted the largest audience to date at our regular evening meetings for 2003/2004. Over 40 people were present to hear Mr. Walen’s clear, entertaining, and informative presentation. He explained the challenges faced by the FAA and the airline industry by today’s personal electronic equipment. Many of his comments made the attendees think about these challenges from a different perspective. It was very enlightening! In early March, the Chapter learned the sad news of the passing of Chris Kendall of CKC Labs. The Chapter has met regularly at CKC Labs in Redmond over the years and had been treated to several seminars presented by Mr. Kendall. His generosity in sharing his time and talent for EMC education will long be remembered. Chair Pat André, in fact, opened the March meeting with an acknowledgement of Chris and a moment of silence. The meeting was held in conjunction with Northcon at the Meydenbauer Center in Bellevue. Ghery Pettit of Intel and former Seattle Chapter Chair, gave a presentation on “CIPSR 22: Current and Proposed Requirements for ITE Equipment.” Mr. Pettit, as co-convener of CISPR SC I WG 3, gave an expert summary of this document and the evolution of its on-going revisions. CISPR 22 serves as the basis for emission limits for most countries regulating the emissions of Information Technology Equipment (ITE). It was a thorough and informative presentation.

SE Michigan
The SE Michigan EMC Chapter is very active! In February, they organized a special event at the Ford Motor Company Conference and Event Center in Dearborn, Michigan. Held over February 3 and 4, this IEEE/SAE event was titled “Automotive EMC Standards Workshop”. Speakers from the “Big Three”, i.e. Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and General Motors all participated. In addition to automotive EMC standards, topics presented also included NARTE (personal certification and the examination) by Russ Carstensen, an ISO 17025 lab quality system by Dan Hoolihan, and a review of new Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler EMC requirements and applications by their respective personnel. Over 175 people attended! Kimball Williams of UL, Scott Lytle of Yazaki North America, Poul Andersen, recently retired from DaimlerChrysler, Graeme Rogerson of Lotus, and Mark Steffka of GM all played a major role in the success of this event. The Chapter is now focusing on another big event, this one on May 6 with speaker Tom Van Doren of the University of Missouri at Rolla. This promises to be an equally well-received event.

Sendai (Japan)
The Sendai Chapter is pleased to announce the following officers have been elected for a two-year term (2004/2005):
Chair: Professor Tasuku Takagi
(Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University)
Vice-Chair: Professor Akira Sugiura (Tohoku University)
Treasurer: Professor Hideaki Sone (Tohoku University)
Secretary: Professor Hiroshi Echigo (Tohoku Gakuin University)
The Chapter membership is excited about promoting our Chapter activities and the EMC Society! The Sendai Chapter has a number of technical meetings planned this year. Also, the 2004 International Symposium on EMC04/Sendai will be held June 1-5. For more information, please visit the Chapter’s website at

The audience at the Singapore Chapter meeting listened with keen interest during the discussion led by Elya Joffe. The lecture hall was near full capacity.
Elya Joffe (left) and Dr. Kye-Yak See (on the right), Chapter Chair, answers questions following the presentation.
Elya Joffe (far left) addressed the Singapore Chapter during the January meeting.

The Singapore Chapter meeting on January 13th was held in a lecture theater at Singapore Polytechnic. A nearly full house of 67 participants came to the early evening meeting. Elya B. Joffe (a member of the EMC Society Board of Directors) spoke on the topic of “Principle of the Path of Least Inductance and Its Implications in Circuit, Cable and Grounding Design.” The general atmosphere of the meeting was informal and the participants enjoyed ideas about current return path. Based on the very basic principle of least inductance, Mr. Joffe made EMC design of circuit and grounding a science rather than “black magic,” which is what most designers think is the case. This lecture was originally planed for one and a half hours but the keen interest and questions of the audience kept it going for two hours! The Singapore Chapter will be conducting a series of one-day short courses in the coming months. One of the proposed topics is “EMI/EMC Measurements” by Dr. Alphones (Senior Member). Interested parties can contact Tim Foo at by E-mail for the details.

Mike Hatfield of the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division explains the importance of performing electromagnetic testing with predictable uncertainties.
The Phoenix EMC Chapter officers and their spouses attended the Phoenix IEEE Section’s Annual Awards Banquet where vice-chairperson, Daryl Gerke, was presented with a technical achievement award for his presentation on the “Mysteries of Grounding.” From left are Harry and Lo-An Gaul, Steve Gerard, Terry and Suzie Donohoe, and Mary and Daryl Gerke.

Harry Gaul reports that all had an exciting time at the February 19th IEEE EMC Society Phoenix Chapter meeting held at the Marriott Mountain Shadows in Scottsdale. This was a joint meeting held in conjunction with the EMC Society’s Board of Directors meeting. The attendees enjoyed some wonderful hors d’oeuvres and drinks by the pool prior to the presentation on reverberation chambers by Mike Hatfield of the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division.
Mike spoke on “How to Conduct Electromagnetic Effects Testing Using a Microwave Oven and a Pair of Dice, Or, A Statistical Approach for Conducting System Electromagnetic Vulnerability Assessments.” Mike began his talk with a short history of actual devastating HERO problems in the Navy followed by an in-depth look at the statistical basis for repeatability in mode-tuned chambers as a function of the number of tuner positions. The premise of Mike’s talk was that large uncertainties in the test process would lead to inconclusive statistical results for the safety of ordnance systems. He contrasted the typical anechoic chamber test method which tends to have too few of aspect angles versus mode-stirred chambers where the directivity tends to get washed out. Mike made the comment that the peak of the mode-stirred responses will equate to the average of the anechoic chamber responses given a sufficient number of tuner positions in the reverberation chamber and aspect angles in an anechoic chamber. Mike provided some interesting test results for measuring the shielding effectiveness of boxes. As it turned out, the anechoic chamber results were much more uniform when a mechanical stirrer was placed inside the box. The test results obtained in reverberation chambers were amazingly repeatable across multiple test labs. A lively discussion ensued at the end of the presentation concerning stirring as opposed to stepping the tuner and the loss of statistical significance because of the response time of the unit under test.
Information on future meetings is available on the Phoenix EMC Chapter Web site at

Roger Swanberg of DLS Electronic Systems gave a presentation on board level suppression to the Chicago EMC Chapter.

Roger Swanberg of DLS Electronic Systems gave a riveting presentation to the Chicago Chapter entitled, “An Approach to Board Level Suppression.”
This talk covered the setup and operation of a low cost suppression site. It showed an approach to setting up and using a site for identifying and suppressing EMI signals from small electronic devices or systems. These emissions can be identified by means of a systematic, organized approach down to the device and pin level where suppression techniques can then be applied. EMC

If you would like to contact the IEEE Webmaster
© Copyright 2004, IEEE. Terms & Conditions. Privacy & Security

return to contents
IEEE logo